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Engineering Approaches to Problem Solving and Design in Secondary School Science: Teachers as Design Coaches


"This position paper examines the integration of engineering and science in secondary education by synthesizing literature drawn from bodies of literature in engineering education, science education, learning sciences, design cognition, and engineering studies. This paper argues that realizing the vision of the Framework requires a clear understanding of its dimensions, a strive for authenticity, a vision of students as reflective decision-makers, and the development of teachers as design coaches. Promising models of teaching are discussed with evidence supporting student learning and engagement and recommendations for further scaffolding. The paper also describes epistemic, disciplinary practices in engineering and compares these practices to the depictions of engineering practices in the classroom. Recommendations are provided on how to support disciplinary core ideas in engineering design. In classrooms where three-dimensional learning is happening, students and teachers take roles that are more than receiving and delivering knowledge; they are part of a classroom learning community where students are reflective decision-makers and teachers are design coaches."